AUSTRALIA-PHILIPPINES DEFENCE COOPERATION
Military ties between Australia and the Philippines date back to 1922 when Rear Admiral John Saumarez Dumaresq CB CVO, the captain of HMAS SYDNEY during the last two years of the First World War (1917-1918) and the first Australian born commander of the Australian fleet (1919-1922), was accorded the equivalent of a State Funeral in Manila. Rear Admiral Dumaresq died of illness in Manila while returning to the United Kingdom after completing his term as commander of the Australian Fleet and is buried in Manila Memorial Park, Paranaque.
During the Second World War—the single deadliest day for the Australian Forces occurred on 01 July 1942, when more than one fiftieth of all Australian Service Personnel killed during the 2173 days that Australia was at war lost their lives off the northwestern coast of the Philippines. They were prisoners-of-war captured at Rabaul in New Guinea and were being transported aboard the Japanese hell ship MONTEVIDEO MARU when it was sunk off Cape Bojeador in Ilocos Norte. A plaque commemorating those lost on the MONTEVIDEO MARU is included on the Hell Ships Memorial on the waterfront in Subic Bay.
Australian military involvement in the liberation of the Philippines began in June 1943, when eight Australian Servicemen who had escaped from Sandakan in Sabah joined the Filipino guerrillas fighting on Tawi-Tawi in the southern Philippines. Two of the men were killed during fighting and three returned to Australia in early 1944, while the three remaining soldiers were transferred to Special Operations Australia and continued to fight on Mindanao until the island was liberated in 1945.
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) contribution to the liberation began with photographic reconnaissance missions over the Philippines from August 1944, and included the contribution of a critically important signals intelligence unit to the decisive Allied landings on Leyte. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) contributed cruisers, destroyers, hydrographic survey and landing ships, while Australian Army soldiers served as analysts in the RAAF signals intelligence unit and as bombardment liaison teams and landing detachments aboard the RAN ships. The names of thirty Australian sailors killed when a Japanese aircraft crashed into HMAS AUSTRALIA during the landings, as well as those of 62 Australians killed while fighting for the liberation of the Philippines are commemorated on the Australian-Philippines Liberation Memorial in the MacArthur Landing Memorial Park in Palo on Leyte. Annually on 20 October, the local government holds a commemoration ceremony in the park.
RAN ships also participated in the Battle of Surigao Strait on 25 October 1944 when the Japanese fleet was severely defeated while attempting to destroy the Leyte landing forces. The battle, the last pitting battleship against battleship, is known as the world’s last big-gun naval battle. A plaque commemorating RAN participation in the battle is located on a memorial at the Lipata Ferry Terminal in Surigao City where the local government host an annual commemoration ceremony on 25 October.
The Australian contribution to the second Allied landing in the Philippines on 15 December 1944 at San Jose, Mindoro to establish airfields from which to cover the planned Lingayen landings was smaller but no less significant. To guard against Japanese Navy interference from nearby Manila Bay, twenty-four RAAF Catalinas mined the entrance to Manila Bay on the eve of the landing. One Catalina failed to return from the mission, the wreckage of which was recently identified on a ridge on the northern end of Mindoro. A public memorial commemorating the mission and the nine men killed on Catalina A24-64 is located in the forecourt of the Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific in Alas-Asin on the Bataan Peninsula, near where the mines were laid.
The RAAF also contributed an airfield construction squadron to Mindoro Landing Forces to assist US engineers develop urgently required airstrips. The RAN contingent consisted of an armed ocean-going tug that towed a barge of high-octane fuel from Leyte for US torpedo boats in protecting the Mindoro landing site, while the Australian Army's contribution consisted of an electronic warfare unit.
The third and final major landing in the Philippines was also the deadliest for Australia, with forty-six RAN sailors killed in three separate Kamikaze attacks while the ships were approaching and in the Lingayen Gulf. RAN cruisers, destroyers, hydrographic survey and landing ships together with their Army detachments participated in the operation. The RAAF contingent consisted of a detachment of the signals intelligence unit, which also included Australian Army personnel. A plaque commemorating the RAN participation in the landings is located in the Lingayen Veterans Memorial Park where the local government holds an annual commemoration ceremony on 9 January.
The RAN subsequently continued to contribute ships in support of minor landings at Subic Bay, Corregidor, Zamboanga, Iloilo and Cebu as well as in Central Mindanao where the three Special Operations Australia soldiers were still fighting.
Australia's military ties with the Philippines continued even after liberation. Operating from Manila, Mindoro, Tawi-Tawi and Palawan, RAAF Catalinas, Liberators, Kittyhawks and Beaufighters supported the Australian operations to secure the oil fields and refineries on Borneo between March and June 1945. Further north during the same period, RAAF Catalinas used the Lingayen Gulf as a staging point to mine strategic points on the coast of China to stem the flow of urgently needed essential resources to Japan from Southeast Asia.
Six years later, Australian and Filipino soldiers fought historic battles to defend South Korea during the 1951 Chinese Spring Offensive. The Battle of Yuldong on the night of 22/23 April is commemorated in the Philippines, while the Battle of Kapyong is commemorated in Australia on 24 April. Notably, on the same day as the Battle of Kapyong, the Filipinos and their light tanks fought together with an Australian Army officer commanding a troop of British Centurion tanks in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the 'Glorious Glosters'. A British battalion that had been surrounded by Chinese Forces on the Imjin River with the majority eventually being killed or taken prisoner.
More recently, Filipinos served in the Australian led International Force East Timor (INTERFET) during East Timor's transition to independence in 1999.
A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Cooperative Defence Activities was signed on 22 August 1995, laying the foundation for the Joint Defence Cooperation Committee (JDCC) to provide policy direction, coordinate and monitor MOU activities.
A Status of Visiting Forces Agreement (SOVFA) entered into force in September 2012 to provide a comprehensive legal and operational framework for Defence Cooperation. The SOVFA was instrumental in 2013 during Operation Philippine Assist, Australia’s response to Typhoon Haiyan to facilitate the rapid deployment of medical assistance, humanitarian and reconstruction support involving over 500 service personnel, numerous aircraft and the Landing Ship Heavy HMAS Tobruk.
A Comprehensive Partnership was signed on 18 November 2015, new bilateral initiatives have been developed. The most significant is the commencement of Navy-to-Navy strategic level talks. The inaugural Navy-to-Navy Strategy talks in March 2017, co-chaired by the Deputy Chief of the Royal Australian Navy and the Vice Commander Philippine Navy.
Enhanced Defence Cooperation Program
Over the years, a number of visiting Australian ships, aircraft and personnel, Australian Defence Industry representatives and senior officials have met their counterparts and other stakeholders throughout the Philippines and to participate in joint exercises. Military exercises increased mutual confidence amongst regional defence forces whose troops may have to operate together in global and regional contingencies, such as peacekeeping or natural disaster relief.
The ADF supports training and education opportunities for personnel of all ranks from the AFP and Philippines Coast Guard (PCG), and middle-to-senior ranked uniform and civilian personnel from the Department of National Defense (DND). Training opportunities take the form of formal courses and workshops conducted in Australia or ADF Mobile Training Team (MTT) delivered courses in the Philippines.
Approximately 100 AFP, PCG, and DND personnel undertake education and training in Australia each year, while several hundred participate in training provided through MTT visits to the Philippines, conducted by the Joint Australian Training Team - Philippines (JATT-P). MTT provide training in fields such as Command and Operations Law, Maritime Strategic Studies, Defence Intelligence Research and Analysis, and Aviation Safety. MTT flexible and can be organised quickly to satisfy a newly identified training requirement.
Australia continues to work closely with the Philippines as it seeks to achieve its modernisation goals, increase maritime security and domain awareness, and reduce the international terrorist threat.
For more information on the Australian Defence Force (ADF), go to: www.defence.gov.au
Australia and the Philippines have a legacy of cooperation following a humanitarian emergency. In 2013, the Australian Government provided humanitarian assistance following Typhoon Haiyan. A major component of the rapid response is the deployment of military assets:
- An amphibious landing ship, HMAS Tobruk, carrying several amphibious watercraft and helicopter which delivered 110 tonnes of relief supplies to outlying islands;
- Two C17 and three C130 aircrafts reinforced the aviation hub in Mactan Cebu with 90 personnel deployed which conducted 250 air operations, and transported million pounds of cargo and over 5,000 displaced people and humanitarian workers;
- Over 550 Australian Defence personnel deployed across Ormoc, Mactan, Tacloban and Manila under Operation Philippines Assist, which undertook debris clearing and repair of 175 classrooms allowing 15,500 children to return to school.
In July 2015, the Australian Government provided the Philippine Navy two Landing Craft Heavy (LCH) that were put to immediate use in the wake of Typhoon Koppu. The Philippine Government acquired a further three LCH for the Philippine Navy in March 2016.
In the News
Philippine President Rodrigo Roa Duterte visited the HMAS Adelaide, the largest ship ever built for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Welcoming the President on arrival were Australian Ambassador Amanda Gorely, Australian Chief of Defence Mark Binskin and Commander Joint Task Group, Indo-Pacific Endeavour 2017, Captain Jonathan Earley (RAN). Read more here.